(Pictures taken in 1993)
Chichen Itza was alarge pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the TerminalClassic period. The archaeological site is located in TinúmMunicipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.
Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.
Chichen Itza was one of the largest Maya cities and it was likely to have been one of the mythical great cities, or Tollans, referred to in later Mesoamerican literature. The city may have had the most diverse population in the Maya world, a factor that could have contributed to the variety of architectural styles at the site.
The ruins of Chichen Itza are federal property, and the site’s stewardship is maintained by Mexico’s Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History). The land under the monuments had been privately owned until 29 March 2010, when it was purchased by the state of Yucatán.
Chichen Itza is one of the most visited archaeological sites in Mexico with over 2.6 million tourists in 2017.
Palenque, alsoanciently known as Lakamha (literally: “Big Water”), was aMaya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7thcentury. The Palenque ruins date from ca. 226 BC to ca. AD 799. Afterits decline, it was absorbed into the jungle of cedar, mahogany, andsapodilla trees, but has since been excavated and restored. It islocated near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas,about 130 km (81 mi) south of Ciudad del Carmen, 150m (164 yd) above sea level. It averages a humid 26 °C (79 °F) withroughly 2160 mm (85 in) of rain a year.
Palenque is a medium-sized site, smaller than Tikal, Chichen Itza, or Copán, but it contains some of the finest architecture, sculpture, roof comb and bas-relief carvings that the Mayas produced. Much of the history of Palenque has been reconstructed from reading the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the many monuments; historians now have a long sequence of the ruling dynasty of Palenque in the 5th century and extensive knowledge of the city-state’s rivalry with other states such as Calakmul and Toniná. The most famous ruler of Palenque was K’inich Janaab Pakal, or Pacal the Great, whose tomb has been found and excavated in the Temple of the Inscriptions.
By 2005, the discovered area covered up to 2.5 km² (1 sq mi), but it is estimated that less than 10% of the total area of the city is explored, leaving more than a thousand structures still covered by jungle.
By 2005, thediscovered area covered up to 2.5 km² (1 sq mi), but it is estimatedthat less than 10% of the total area of the city is explored, leavingmore than a thousand structures still covered by jungle.
San Francisco de Campeche is a city in Campeche Municipality in the state of Campeche, Mexico, on the shore of the Bay of Campeche of the Gulf of Mexico—and its municipal seat also serves as the state’s capital city.
The city was founded in 1540 by Spanish conquistadores as San Francisco de Campeche atop the pre-existing Maya city of Can Pech. The Pre-Columbian city was described as having 3,000 houses and various monuments, of which little trace remains.
The city retains many of the old colonial Spanish city walls and fortifications which protected the city (not always successfully) from pirates and buccaneers. The state of preservation and quality of its architecture earned it the status of a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999. Originally, the Spaniards lived inside the walled city, while the natives lived in the surrounding barrios of San Francisco, Guadalupe and San Román. These barrios still retain their original churches; the one in Guadalupe is almost 500 years old.